Tuesday, September 8, 2009


Since the Planning Commission monitors all infrastructural and developmental works, prior to incurring the huge capital expenditure, a feasibility report or a techno –economic study is conducted to gauge the monetary value of the project. Plan Heads are used to indicate the source of funds and these are common to all ministries.

This is a rough and rapid survey without any technical instrument. The purpose is to assess the
Consists of a detailed instrumental examination of the route/s selected as a result of reconnaissance survey in order to obtain a close estimate of the probable cost of the projected railway. Based on this survey, the decision whether the line is taken up of not is usually taken in conjunction with Traffic survey. In this survey no sophisticated survey equipments are used.
This is detailed survey of the traffic conditions and prospects of an area with the object of determining the most promising (economic) route for the rly line in the area, the probable traffic. Based on this survey only project is determined
This is a more sophisticated and detailed technical survey and is normally conducted after once the justification of the project is accepted, based on the Preliminary Survey. The alignment of the line is finally selected is fully staked on the ground with a “theodolite” or “ tachometer” and the report with detailed plans and sections prepared only after the final location survey has been completed and the report received by the Rly Bd , sanction for the project is accorded.

Estimate is an assessment of quantum of labour, material and other services required to complete a work and it is expressed in monetary values.

ABSTRACT ESTIMATE is prepared in order to enable the authority competent to
give administrative approval to the expenses to judge the necessity, utility and Financial prospects and to enable the authority to gauge the magnitude and Nature of the work contemplated. These estimates avoid the delay and expenses Of preparing estimates in detail at a stage when the general desirability of the work Has not been decided. Para 702 E

DETAILED ESTIMATE is prepared to secure technical sanction to the work After the administrative approval is accorded. These estimates are prepared In sufficient details to enable the competent authority to ensure that the cost Indicated in the abstract estimate in not exceeded. The work is taken up only After the sanction of this estimate. Para 707 E
PROJECT ABSTRACT ESTIMATE is prepared after the Final Location is completed. This is submitted to Rly Bd showing the abstract cost of the project under Different sub heads of allocation showing further the unit cost and rate of Expenses per kilo meter of the line for the whole line and sections of the line. This is accompanied by i. an abstract estimate of junction arrangements
ii. A narrative report of explaining the proposed expenditure under capital heads
like workshop, stores, buildings, plant & machinery etc iii. Detailed estimate
for the civil construction.
This estimate is submitted for purposes of Parliamentary and Administrative Approval and necessary funds for taking up the work are allotted to the Rlys Based on these estimates. Para 702 E

PROJECT DETAILED ESTIMATE is detailed working estimates of all works Included in the project and is prepared after a careful examination of all Various details of construction involved in the project. Once this estimate is Prepared preparation of further working estimates should not arise except Some supplementary or revised estimate becomes necessary. This is prepared and submitted to the competent technical authority for his sanction. Details of junction arrangements, main line and branch line estimates, Divisions of project including estimates for the alternative alignmentss and For the length with it would supercede if adopted to be furnished. It should be Split geographically based on the sections likely to be opened for traffic in stages

SUPPLEMENTARY ESTIMATE is prepared for any item of work which ought to have been included in the first instance in an estimate already sanctioned but has not been included, which it is found later should be considered as being a part of or a phase of an estimate already prepared and sanctioned, if it cannot be met out of contingencies. Such estimates should be prepared in the same form and the same degree of detail as the main detailed estimate and for all purposes be treated as part of the detailed estimate.
REVISED ESTIMATE As soon as it becomes apparent that the expenditure on work or a project is likely to exceed the amount provided for in the detailed estimates or construction estimate ( including supplementary if any) a Revised Estimate should be prepared and submitted to competent authority. It should unless otherwise ordered by the sanctioning authority, be prepared in the same form in the same degree of detail as the original estimate. It should be accompanied by a comparative statement showing the excess or savings under each sub head a/c against the latest sanction.

COMPLETION ESTIMATE is prepared in supercession of construction estimate This estimate shows in a tabular form the following particulars: 1. amount of sanctioned estimate 2. Actual expenditure 3.commitmebts on that day 4. Anticipated further outlay 5. Total estimated cost 6. Diff between sanctioned estimate and estimate cost.

Check of estimates:
Propriety of expenditure
Incidence and classification of charges
Existence of budget provisions
Freedom from errors and omissions
Competency of sanction
As a Financial Advisor, it is the duty of AO to see
The expenditure proposed is to be charged to the railway funds is properly and legitimately chargeable
That proper financial justification is forthcoming in all works requiring financial justification,
That in the case of estimates for the staff quarters and other rent returning buildings the anticipated yield of rent as shown in the Rent Statement will not have the effect of reducing the return on the cost of each class of quarters to less than the dividend rate per annum.
Incidence and classification of charges should be verified in an estimate according to rules of classification of expenditure as provided in the Revised Classification ( FII). In the verification certificate AO should indicate the correct allocation and the same is verified.
Existence of budget provision. The provision in the budget for the proposed work should be verified with reference to the sanctioned allotment for the year. Errors and omissions should be got vetted by the executives where needed a check note indicating the errors and omissions should be enclosed to the estimate at the time of verification.
Competency of sanction The powers vested with the sanctioning authority should be verified with reference to the extent Schedule of Powers and a clear indication regarding the authority competent to sanction the estimate should be given in the estimate. A certificate of accounts verification I the following form is to be appended to “incidence and allocation verified subject to the check note attached. This requires the sanction of …………………….”

Minor points:
1 the particulars of work should be given in sufficient detail and proper distribution should be made between cash and stores
2 the allocation of each item is given and an abstraction of allocation is made
3 that all incidental expenditure that can be foreseen has been provided for in the estimate
4 that in the case of renewal, replacement or dismantlement, the credit for the released materials has been provided (CRRM)
5 that in the case of a work to be done for other Govt depts., or private bodies provision has been made for necessary departmental charges
6 that in the case of estimates for staff quarters and other rent returning buildings a Rent statement is enclosed

C R of a work or project is prepared by the executive dept in the prescribed format with a view to comparing the actual expenditure on the works, sub work wise with the latest sanctioned estimate/ completion estimate. Where ever more one dept has executed the work, part CR can also be prepared in respect of their sub worksfor which separate sub estimates are available. Where ever the expenditure of the work exceeds 10 % with reference to the estimated cost, under each cub work explanation for the same should be given. Similarly, for any savings exceeding 20 % an explanation is given.
Before the CR is drawn, the executive should ensure that all charges and receipts for the work have been fully booked to the work account. In order to help the executives in this direction, the work registers are viewed in the accounts office and where ever no bookings occur continuously for more than 3 months, such works are reported to the executive concerned thru” work suspended statement”. Based on the statement, the concerned executives should take speedy action in collecting further charges and receipts against the work so that CR may be drawn.
In case of works for which no revised estimates are prepared to cover the variations in the cost, the same shall be also regularized under competent sanction through CR. The CR prepared with the help of the postings in the works registers and they are submitted to the AO where the following points are verified.
that the CR has been prepared in the prescribed format
that the entries made therein agree with those mentioned in the concerned works registers
that the credit for released material as provide for in the estimate has been adjusted against the work concerned
that the materials originally charged to the work but not used u,p has been returned to stores or transferred elsewhere duly affording necessary credits to ht work
that the posting of all final bills of supply or contract relating to the work have nee made in the works register
that satisfactory explanation are given for excesses of savings
that necessary certificate that “addenda and corrigenda” to the list of building have been issued to given in the CR.
In case of deposit works a certificate that all charges have been fully booked should be entered in the register of deposit works or sidings. After checking the CR as above the same are certified for sanction of the competent authority duly indicating the authority in terms of Schedule of Powers. The CR is then suited to the competent authority for sanction and on receipt of the sanctioned CR the same is noted in the separate Register of CRs Sanctioned in the estimates register against the concerned work also in the works register.
Even in the case of work where work are not finished but there is no reasonable prospect of completing the works in the near future, the Accounts of the work should be closed as in the case of completed works and CR drawn and submitted to the competent authority who has accorded the administrative approval to the work duly certified by accounts.

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